The following publications provide some additional information on the methodology behind PZFlex, its application to a wide range of industries, and validation of the technique to specific problems. Where applicable (due to copyrights), direct links have been supplied.

This is by no means a comprehensive list of all the publications that PZFlex features in. Therefore, if there is a specific topic, application or problem set that is of interest and information cannot be found below, please do not hesitate to contact PZFlex for more information. We are happy to help.

Basic Modelling


Nonlinear & HIFU



Ultrasonic Devices

Electrostatics / CMUT / PMUT


  • “Mapping the material microstructure of safety critical components using ultrasonic phased arrays,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2016.
  • “Design of a low profile array transducer in d15 mode for high angled shear wave generation,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2016.
  • “Multilayer Ultrabroadband Piezocomposite Transducer, Fabrication and characterization” International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, 2013
  • “Experimental and simulated performance of lithium niobate 1–3 piezocomposites for 2 MHz non-destructive testing applications” Ultrasonics 53, 2012.
  • “Laser Generation of Lamb Waves for Defect Detection, Experimental Methods and Finite Element Modeling” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2012.
  • “Finite Element Analysis of Ultrasonic Phased Array Inspections on Anisotropic Welds” AIP Conf. Proc, 2010
  • “Investigation of element cross talk in arrays, using 1-3 piezocomposite substrates” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2007.
  • “Piezoelectric Modeling Using A Time Domain Finite Element Program” Journal of the European Ceramic Society 27, 2007.
  • “Investigating the Influence of the Constituent Materials on the Performance of Periodic Piezoelectric Composite Arrays” Review of Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Vol. 26, 2007
  • “Comparison of the Frequency and Physical Nature of the Lowest Order Parasitic Mode in Single Crystal and Ceramic 2-2 and 1-3 Piezoelectric Composite Transducers” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2006.
  • “Experimental Assessment of Periodic Piezoelectric Composite Arrays Incorporating an Anisotropic Passive Phase” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2006.
  • “Exploring the Advantages of a Random 1-3 Connectivity Piezocomposite Structure Incorporating Piezoelectric Fibres as the Active Element” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2006.
  • “Improving the Thermal Stability of 1-3 Piezoelectric Composite Transducers” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2005.
  • “3D Finite Element Modeling of Obliquely Oriented Piezocomposite Materials and Transducer Arrays” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2004.
  • “Analysis of Ultrasonic Wave Propagation in Metallic Pipe Structures Using Finite Element Modelling Techniques” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2004.
  • “Minimisation of Mechanical Cross Talk In Periodic Piezoelectric Composite Arrays” Insight, 2004.
  • “Finite Element Analysis of Rayleigh Wave Interaction with Finite-Size, Surface-Breaking Cracks” Ultrasonics 41, 2003.
  • “Investigation of Digital Filtering for Stacked, Phased Ultrasound Transducers” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2002.
  • “Lamb Wave Suppression in Periodic 1-3 Piezoelectric Composite Transducers” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2002.
  • “Finite Element Analysis of Phased Plano-Concave Multi-Layer Transducers” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2001.
  • “Experimental and Theoretical Evaluation of the Thermal Behaviour of 1-3 Piezoelectric Composite Transducers” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2000.
  • “Finite Element Analysis of a Deformable Array Transducer” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, 1999.

Industrial Processing

  • “Finite element modelling study to explore the possibilities of ultrasonic gas flow measurement in wet-gas applications” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2016.
  • “Calibration of reflectance-based fiber-optic hydrophones” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2016.
  • “High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Array Transducers for Sonochemistry Applications” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2011.
  • “Noninvasive Field Measurement of Low-Frequenct Ultrasonic Transducers Operating in Sealed Vessels” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2006.
  • “Ultrasonic Field Measurement in Test Cells Combining the Acousto-Optic Effect, Laser Interferometry & Tomography” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2004.

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