NDE Applications

Ultrasonic Inspections

PZFlex is used in a variety of NDE applications, from modelling transducers to wave-propagation and defect interaction through test-pieces. Multi-element arrays can be simulated to generate full inspection methods, e.g. FMC, or any other arbitrary arrangements. The rapid simulation times of PZFlex have assisted industry in eliminating the need for fabricating expensive, bespoke test pieces for pioneering new inspection techniques.

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  • Array inspections

    Array inspections
    Create arbitrary array configurations, and input your own focal laws to fully analyse your sector scans. Direct contact, immersion, angled wedge and TRL inspections can all be accurately recreated.

  • Message Passing Interface
    Message Passing Interface
    Compounding PZFlex’s unparalleled speed, MPI offers vast increases in performance for NDE simulations. Well suited to 16+ cores systems, MPI can be used to analyse billion element wave propagation simulations in a matter of hours.
  • Mode conversion
    Mode conversion
    When considering inspections with complex geometries accurate simulation of mode conversion is often crucial to generating realistic results. PZFlex considers the fundamental elastodynamics of the test piece to demonstrate mode conversion between all wave modes.
  • CAD Import

    CAD Import
    PZFlex’s ability to mesh structures in exceptional detail makes the simulation of complex structures both easy and accurate. STEP and IGES formats can be imported directly, with other formats available through optional pre-processors.

  • Full Matrix Capture

    Full Matrix Capture
    Full Matrix Capture (FMC) provides a versatile way of performing a complete inspection on a component. By running multiple PZFlex Cloud simulations in parallel FMC scans can be recreated rapidly and accurately.

  • Defect interaction

    Defect interaction
    Realistic defect geometries often produce inspection results which are difficult to interpret. By allowing complex defect structures to be meshed in fine detail, PZFlex can recreate the scattering matrix and mode conversion effects providing accurate imaging results.

Heterogeneous Materials

Simulating wave propagation through heterogeneous materials presents a number of unique challenges. Wavefronts are continuously scattered, refracted and mode converted as they move through the component, resulting in highly complex behaviour which is difficult to recreate in analytical models. PZFlex combines the capability to consider all of these effects with a selection of anisotropic material models to allow even the most complex component to be captured. These capabilities continue to open up new applications from simulation of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composites (CFRP) and dissimilar metal welds.

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  • Anisotropic materials
    Anisotropic materials
    Welds with large single crystal grains and CFRP components both exhibit anisotropic behaviour. This can cause dramatic directional dependency in inspections. PZFlex can recreate the beam distortion that can arise, allowing complex inspections to be better understood.
  • CFRP
    Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composite (CFRP) components exhibit dramatic anisotropy and scattering effects during wave propagation, which often limits inspection frequency. PZFlex can predict how inspections will perform in these components, allowing frequency and angle to be optimised.
  • Scattering
    Scattering due to grain noise or laminate layers can mask critical defects. PZFlex allows you to accurately assess backscatter levels, allowing the optimum inspection frequency to be selected.
  • Shell Elements
    Shell Elements
    Shell elements are ideal for simulating Lamb wave propagation through multilayer laminates. Isotropic and orthotropic shells are available and coupling into bulk materials is made easy, allowing very large structures to be considered.
  • Arbitrary material maps
    Arbitrary material maps
    No matter how complex the component, PZFlex can capture the microstructure in high detail. Weld maps can be read in directly from simple images, or analysed in detail before importation in pre-processors.
  • Honeycomb structures
    Honeycomb structures
    Aerospace components often incorporate complex structures such as multi-layer laminates or honeycomb sections. PZFlex can use shell elements in arbitrary structured meshes to recreate these components to allow subtle effects such as delamination to be simulated.